Interfacing with core waterflood groups involving team members from Reservoir, Completions, Subsea, Flowlines/Risers, and Topsides to arrive at a design is crucial. Ultimately, the design will be defined at the interfaces, have taken a lifecycle approach from detailed design, commissioning, startup, and steady-state operations, and lead to more certainty in that the design will meet the basis of design and flexible enough to handle uncertainties.

The primary focus of the GATE Water Injection Team is to provide systems engineering solutions towaterflood design, commissioning, and system operability. We focus our core areas of expertise of materials, corrosion, production chemistry, and flow modeling coupled with field experience involving multiple water injection system start-ups to arrive at a design which will achieve reservoir engineering expectations.

The work process begins with understanding the water chemistry – which drives the souring, scaling, and corrosion aspects of the design. Understanding the voidage replacement requirements, expected availability of the system – the topsides throughput can be arrived at, and then working with completions a topsides pressure estimate is calculated. This information begins to form the basis of design in which novel technologies can be identified such as high pressure pumps or Oxygen Removal units.

Overall, GATE is instrumental in bringing definition to the project based on system engineering principles, time tested production chemistry, true offshore commissioning & startup experience, and operational flow assurance techniques.

The GATE Waterflood Team focuses on:

  • Souring, Scaling and Corrosion Modeling
  • Material Selection
  • Water Injection System Design and Selection
  • Integrated Flow Modeling and Water Injector Performance
  • Thermal and Fracture Modeling

Key Projects Involving Water Injection

GATE has been involved with major offshore water injection projects around the globe.

BHP Billiton – Shenzi Waterflood Commissioning

GATE was involved early in the seawater treating design basis to influence / impart operability and commissioning efforts. From the design phase, GATE became responsible for dynamic commissioning and start-up during the offshore phase. GATE was tasked with the following:

  • Overall dynamic commissioning and start-up strategy, plan, and procedures.
  • Execute and manage offshore dynamic commissioning, start-up, and performance testing.
  • Interface with operations to ensure smooth handover of systems with documentation.

Shell– Ursa Princess Waterflood Commissioning

GATE provided seawater treating equipment process, materials, corrosion, chemical, and commissioning / start-up expertise. The scope included shaping the design of the seawater treating equipment and providing commissioning leadership and start-up expertise. The equipment included a Minox and Sulfate Removal Units.

Seawater Lift Pumps

Noble Energy – Aseng Waterflood Systems Engineering

GATE was responsible for developing the overall Aseng Water Injection System Basis of Design. This included the entire system from the topsides system to the reservoir. Different studies conducted by GATE on this system include:

Injectivity studies and linked these results with system requirements including pump and subsea system design requirements.Thermal and fracture modeling and linked these results to operations guidelines also developed by GATE.Materials Selection based on scale and sour modeling also conducted by GATE.Surge analyses and linked this operations guidelines developed by GATE.Water injection standard operating procedures.

Chevron – Tahiti II Waterflood

GATE provided process / commissioning expertise in the pre-commissioning and dynamic commissioning of the Tahiti II deaeration system (100,000 BWPD Minox).

Scope included planning for the offshore portion of the commissioning and offshore execution with the pre-commissioning contractor including confirmation of design, heat and mass balancing, and performance testing.

BHP Billiton – Neptune and Shenzi – Souring Potential Determination

GATE was requested to determine the potential risks involved in waterflood for the Neptune and Shenzi fields as a means to determine whether waterflood was a viable option for enhanced oil recovery. Based on this, GATE developed a waterflood philosophy document that details the problems and possible mitigation procedures for BHP’s use in determining whether or not to waterflood.

Shell– Bonga Waterflood Commissioning

GATE provided overall seawater treating and chemical engineering expertise during the design and offshore commissioning phases of the Bonga Project including both topsides seawater treating as well as subsea injection / start-up.