Development of an integrity management program is initiated during design phase, which includes selecting the appropriate materials, establishing requirements for corrosion, erosion, flow assurance and process along with associated maintenance, monitoring and surveillance requirements. In this GATEKEEPER, the philosophy around the materials selection and corrosion monitoring is discussed as the primary design barrier to corrosion and cracking in critical parts of a subsea system.
Blockage remediation methods vary widely depending on the nature and location of the blockage, available facilities, targeted outcome(s) and costs involved. In Blockage Remediation Part 1: Blockage Characterization and Detection, we discussed the importance of correctly understanding the nature of a blockage in order to formulate an effective remediation solution.
This GATEKEEPER will focus on commonly applied remediation methodologies used in the industry, as well as discuss the GATE blockage remediation approach.
In spite of robust design, adequate infrastructure and a well planned and executed operating strategy, partial or fully blocked pipelines, with loss of production in many cases, is a reality. This series of two articles discusses the diagnosis, detection and remediation of oil and gas production system blockages in detail. The current issue focusses on blockage characterization and detection.
American Petroleum Institute (API) 5CT high strength steels are extensively used for casing strings inwells subjected to high cyclic hydraulic fracturing loads. While non-sour grades of API steel such as P110 casing strings have been used satisfactorily for well construction, standard API P110 connections have seen higher rates of failures than pipe body failures in shale wells that require hydraulic fracturing.
Liquid loading is one of the major challenges faced by shale gas producers. This phenomenon occurs when the gas in-situ velocity is insufficient to carry the produced liquid, leading to liquid fallback in the wellbore. Liquid Loading can occur during the flowback phase, the phase where the well is producing liquid from hydraulic fracturing, as well as the production phase, and is known to cause premature gas production decline, as shown in Figure 1, as well as production instability and flow assurance issues.
In the previous parts of this series, it was established that wax deposition is an issue that arises whenever an oil composition containing appreciable wax content encounters flow, temperature, and pressure that are conducive for solids formation. The effective development of wax management strategies during Front End Engineering Design (FEED) can serve to mitigate or perhaps even prevent the high costs associated with wax remediation.
Wax deposition modeling is essential to estimate the wax deposit thickness over time in support of wax management strategy development for susceptible systems. The objective of this GATEKEEPER is to provide a high-level overview of the model commonly used in the industry to estimate the wax deposition.
Wax deposition is an issue that arises whenever an oil composition containing appreciable wax content encounters flow, temperature, and pressure that are conducive for solids formation. Wax deposition can potentially occur anywhere in the system from the reservoir to the refinery.
Mercury is commonly found in gas processing systems (midstream) and oil and gas fields throughout the world. Mercury is toxic to life and can have deleterious effects to several alloys commonly used in oil and gas production and refining industries.
Methanol (MeOH) contamination of crude oil is a growing concern in the oil and gas industry, as pipeline and refinery quality requirements become more restrictive. MeOH is used in multiple applications in the offshore oil and gas industry
A Decision Support Tool (DST) is an operational barrier used to achieve desired and predictable project outcomes as part of an overall integrated risk management strategy.
Offshore components often suffer from corrosion due to exposure to environments such as seawater, produced water, solvents, oxygen, CO2, H2S and other acids and abrasive particles. To protect equipment from degradation, coatings are applied to internal and external surfaces to provide electrical insulation, physical protection and corrosion and/or chemical resistance. Coatings can also provide thermal insulation, anti-slip, color coding, flame-retardant and anti-bio-fouling qualities to a given surface. This GATEKEEPER provides a general overview of the epoxy coatings used in offshore oil and gas service and discusses common causes of premature coating failure as well as factors affect coating quality.