Blockage Remediation Part 2: Remediation Methodologies & Execution

Blockage remediation methods vary widely depending on the nature and location of the blockage, available facilities, targeted outcome(s) and costs involved. In Blockage Remediation Part 1: Blockage Characterization and Detection, we discussed the importance of correctly understanding the nature of a blockage in order to formulate an effective remediation solution.

This GATEKEEPER will focus on commonly applied remediation methodologies used in the industry, as well as discuss the GATE blockage remediation approach.

Blockage Remediation Part 1: Blockage Characterization & Detection

In spite of robust design, adequate infrastructure and a well planned and executed operating strategy, partial or fully blocked pipelines, with loss of production in many cases, is a reality. This series of two articles discusses the diagnosis, detection and remediation of oil and gas production system blockages in detail. The current issue focusses on blockage characterization and detection.

Wax Management Strategy Part 3: Design, Development & Maintenance

In the previous parts of this series, it was established that wax deposition is an issue that arises whenever an oil composition containing appreciable wax content encounters flow, temperature, and pressure that are conducive for solids formation. The effective development of wax management strategies during Front End Engineering Design (FEED) can serve to mitigate or perhaps even prevent the high costs associated with wax remediation.

Wax Management Strategy Part 2: Wax Deposition Modeling

Wax deposition modeling is essential to estimate the wax deposit thickness over time in support of wax management strategy development for susceptible systems. The objective of this GATEKEEPER is to provide a high-level overview of the model commonly used in the industry to estimate the wax deposition.

Wax Management Strategy Part 1: Establishing Initial Wax Risk

Wax deposition is an issue that arises whenever an oil composition containing appreciable wax content encounters flow, temperature, and pressure that are conducive for solids formation. Wax deposition can potentially occur anywhere in the system from the reservoir to the refinery­.

Artificial Lift for Subsea Applications

The natural decline in the reservoir energy will impact the flowrate of oil, gas or water, thereby creating instabilities and resulting in decreased production. Artificial lift is used in oil-dominated or liquid-loaded gas systems to increase and stabilize hydrocarbon production, as well as to minimize flow assurance and operational risks, such as slugging in the subsea production system. Artificial lift methods transfer energy to the produced fluid with the objectives of reducing the fluid density and the pressure head or boosting the flowing pressure.

Bacterial Monitoring & Remediation in Pipelines

Bacteria inhabit the vast majority of oilfield water systems. These may either be attached to the pipe wall (i.e. sessile bacteria) or free floating through the system (i.e. planktonic bacteria). Planktonic bacteria do not directly contribute to the microbiologically induced corrosion (MIC) of pipeline systems; however, planktonic bacteria can attach to the pipe wall under the right conditions, becoming sessile bacteria. Consequently, there is some value in monitoring planktonic bacteria activity in a pipeline, although it is substantially less beneficial than monitoring the sessile population activity.

Evaluating Scaling Risks – What is the Big Picture?

Scale management, and the modeling and risk assessments that support it at the design stage of a project, is a critical part of the field development process for deepwater oil and gas developments. In many cases,  scaling risk assessments are undertaken very early in the appraisal and concept selection process and with minimal supporting data; however, the implications of such studies can drive field design and affect the commercial viability of a project.

Functionality Testing of Production Chemicals for Deepwater

Efficient production of oil and gas generally requires the use of specialty chemicals to ensure continuous and profitable system operability. The application of these chemicals help mitigate several flow assurance and integrity related challenges including asphaltene and wax deposition, scale build-up, hydrate blockage, corrosion, etc. In offshore applications, particularly in deepwater (DW), where many components of the production system are not easily accessible, it is critical to ensure safe and reliable chemical delivery to obtain maximum recovery without any lost production or asset integrity issues.

H2S Scavenging: Amine Systems

This GATEKEEPER focuses on Amine Systems, one of the most commonly used regenerative H2S scavengers in the Oil & Gas industry.

Amines are organic compounds derived from ammonia with substitution of one or all of the hydrogens with alkyl or aryl groups, retaining a basic nitrogen atom with one lone pair of electrons. They can be classified as Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, or Cyclic.

H2S Scavenging: Using Triazine

H2S scavenging, or “gas sweetening,” is both a safety-critical and economic concern for ensuring trouble free upstream and downstream operations. This GATEKEEPER will discuss the use of triazine as a liquid H2S scavenger. Focal points include method of scavenging, application limits, treatment efficiency, production systems, downstream risks, as well as environmental impacts.