Liquid loading is one of the major challenges faced by shale gas producers. This phenomenon occurs when the gas in-situ velocity is insufficient to carry the produced liquid, leading to liquid fallback in the wellbore. Liquid Loading can occur during the flowback phase, the phase where the well is producing liquid from hydraulic fracturing, as well as the production phase, and is known to cause premature gas production decline, as shown in Figure 1, as well as production instability and flow assurance issues.
Introduction Wells can be organized into three primary categories: production, injection, and conversion/turn-around. Material selection must be tailored to each well type, as each offers unique challenges from a materials performance perspective.
Tubing and casing are critical to the production of oil and gas and well integrity. Reservoir fluids flowing through the production tubing are often corrosive, making necessary the use of corrosion resistant alloys (CRA) offshore.